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Bioenergy potential

Potential of main renewable energy sources in Russia

Russia has large potential of renewable energy sources (RES) of all main types that creates favourable perspectives for solving energy, social and environmental problems in future.

Estimation of potential of renewable energy sources in Russia1, million tons of coal equivalent/year

RES typeGross potentialTechnical potentialEconomic potential
Solar energy
2 205 4009 6763
Wind energy886 2562 21611
Small hydropower40212670
Biomass energy46814069
Geothermal energy*11 869114
Lower-grade heat56319453
3 093 08924 221320

*Gross potential of geothermal energy is 22.9 trillion tons of coal equivalent/year

Gross (theoretical) potential is yearly energy volume contained in this RES type as completely transformed into useful energy.

Technical potential is part of gross potential that can be transformed into useful energy using the existing development of technologies and following the environmental requirements.

Economical potential is part of technical potential which transformation into useful energy is economically reasonable with the current level of prices for fossil fuel, heat and electric power, equipment, materials, transport services, remuneration of labour, etc. Possible schemes for support of RES development were not considered.

1 Reference book on resources of renewable energy sources in Russia and local types of fuel (values by territories). Under the editorship of Bezrukikh P.P., Moscow, IATs «Energy», 2007

Technical potential of biomass energy in Russia

Information with sectoral and territorial breakdown of technical potential in regard to biomass is shown below. The numbers of technical potential of biomass energy are considered the most informative and reliable as gross potential is known to be unavailable while economical potential strongly depends on constantly changing economical conditions and the level of RES support by state and other institutions. At the same time technical potential of agricultural wastes, for example, equals to gross potential as all such wastes can technically be processed into energy.

Estimation of technical potential of energy from biomass wastes in Russia1, million tons of coal equivalent/year

Federal districtForest Industry ComplexAgricultural sectorHousing and Utilities infrastructureTotal
Southern, incl. North-Caucasian Federal District0.424.81.626.7
Far Eastern11.40.70.512.6


In regard to forest industry complex energy potential of wastes from lumbering and woodworking is considered. For agricultural sector wastes from poultry industry, livestock sector, crop sector and processing industry are considered. Wastes of housing and utilities infrastructure include hard domestic waste and sludge.

There is information broken down by individual subjects of the Russian Federation in the primary source1.

Reference book on resources of renewable energy sources in Russia and local types of fuel (values by territories). Under the editorship of Bezrukikh P.P., Moscow, IATs «Energy», 2007

Potential of biogas production

The potential of biogas production from the wastes of the agricultural sector is estimated by experts as 60…80 billion cubic m per year. The potential distribution among the federal districts of the Russian Federation is shown on the map.